2.1 Ventilation and Thermal Comfort

Fffective and suitable provision shall be made for securing and maintaining adequate ventilation in each work room by the circulation of fresh air. The minimum fresh air required in a work room where there are no contaminants to be removed from air shall be such to effect at least three air changes per hour.

Where natural ventilation through windows and other openings is found to be inadequate, mechanical ventilation either by exhaust of air or by positive ventilation or a combination of these two shall be provided.

In the case of industrial buildings wider than 70 ventilation may be augmented by roof ventilation.

Where the desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtained by mere ventilation, air conditioning should be resorted to.

Air movement and distribution may be achieved by re-circulation of the inside and/or outside air by installing an adequate number of fans/blowers. The rate of air movement in the vicinity of workers shall be such as to give reasonable comfort without objectionable draughts.

Effective provision shall also be made for maintaining a reasonable temperature in each work room. The following methods are recommended for controlling temperature.

a. Isolation
Locate heat producing equipment such as furnaces so as to expose only a small number of workers
to the hot environment. Where possible, enclose the work areas and supply conditioned air to enclosures.

b. Insulation

Insulation of the roof and providing ceilings would be very effective in controlling heat. Good results could also be achieved by painting roof sheets with heat reflective shades.

In addition, hot surfaces of equipment such as pipes and vessels may also be insulated to reduce heat absorption/radiation.

2.2 Sanitary Conveniences:

Adequate and separate sanitary conveniences shall be made available for workers of either sex with water accessible on tap. Where persons of both sexes are employed, sanitary conveniences for each sex shall be so screened so as to provide adequate privacy.

The minimum requirement is one sanitary convenience for every twentyfive workers (male or female). However, in the case of any premises where the number of males employed exceeds 100, sufficient urinal accommodation should also be provided on the basis of one urinal for every 50 males.

Sanitary conveniences should have adequate ventilation and lighting. Large windows and/or exhaust fans should be provided in passages and in open areas. Narrow, dark, ill-ventilated passages should be avoided.

2.3 Water Supply

a. Water Storage

In every factory a suitable sump and an overhead water tank should be constructed taking into consideration the total daily requirement of water for domestic use as well as processes, if nay. The total capacity of the sump and the overhead tank should not be less than one day's requirement.

The sumps shall be located so that water could be drawn from it for fire fighting if required. It shall be designed in such a way as to facilitate cleaning and inspection. If located on the fire gap the design of the sump should cater for passage of heavy vehicles over it.

b. Washing Facilities

Separate washing facilities shall be provided for male and female workers. The minimum requirement is one wash basin for every 20 persons. Where troughs are provided they shall be tiled and shall be at least 2 ft. of straight trough for 20 persons.

Washing areas provided for female workers should be enclosed or screened so that the interior is not visible from any place where persons of the other sex work.

In addition to the above, taking into consideration the nature of operation in the factory, there shall be provided a sufficient number of showers for the use of employees. Showers for the use of female workers shall be enclosed.

2.4 Lighting

Provision shall be made for securing and maintaining adequate lighting whether natural or artificial in every part of the factory where persons are working.

In areas where persons are regularly employed the intensity of illumination shall not be less than 400 lux (40 ft. candles) at the height of 3 ft. from the floor. In other parts of the factory over which persons employed pass, the intensity shall not be less than 50 lux (5 ft. candles).

The above are the minimum requirements. For operations that need sustained attention, higher illumination should be provided.

The following table gives the recommended illumination levels for certain operations

Workshop - 400 lux
Sewing - 600 lux
Stores - 50 lux

Lighting should be provided in such a manner as to avoid glare.

Source: Board of Investment (BOI) , Sri Lanka
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