SANITATION & HEALTH REQUIREMENTS
2.1 Ventilation and Thermal Comfort
Fffective and suitable provision shall be made for securing
and maintaining adequate ventilation in each work room by the circulation
of fresh air. The minimum fresh air required in a work room where there
are no contaminants to be removed from air shall be such to effect at
least three air changes per hour.
Where natural ventilation through windows and other openings
is found to be inadequate, mechanical ventilation either by exhaust
of air or by positive ventilation or a combination of these two shall
In the case of industrial buildings wider than 70 ventilation
may be augmented by roof ventilation.
Where the desired temperatures and humidities cannot be
obtained by mere ventilation, air conditioning should be resorted to.
Air movement and distribution may be achieved by re-circulation
of the inside and/or outside air by installing an adequate number of
fans/blowers. The rate of air movement in the vicinity of workers shall
be such as to give reasonable comfort without objectionable draughts.
Effective provision shall also be made for maintaining
a reasonable temperature in each work room. The following methods are
recommended for controlling temperature.
Locate heat producing equipment such as furnaces so as to expose only
a small number of workers
to the hot environment. Where possible, enclose the work areas and supply
conditioned air to enclosures.
Insulation of the roof and providing ceilings would be
very effective in controlling heat. Good results could also be achieved
by painting roof sheets with heat reflective shades.
In addition, hot surfaces of equipment such as pipes and
vessels may also be insulated to reduce heat absorption/radiation.
2.2 Sanitary Conveniences:
Adequate and separate sanitary conveniences shall be made
available for workers of either sex with water accessible on tap. Where
persons of both sexes are employed, sanitary conveniences for each sex
shall be so screened so as to provide adequate privacy.
The minimum requirement is one sanitary convenience for
every twentyfive workers (male or female). However, in the case of any
premises where the number of males employed exceeds 100, sufficient
urinal accommodation should also be provided on the basis of one urinal
for every 50 males.
Sanitary conveniences should have adequate ventilation
and lighting. Large windows and/or exhaust fans should be provided in
passages and in open areas. Narrow, dark, ill-ventilated passages should
2.3 Water Supply
a. Water Storage
In every factory a suitable sump and an overhead water
tank should be constructed taking into consideration the total daily
requirement of water for domestic use as well as processes, if nay.
The total capacity of the sump and the overhead tank should not be less
than one day's requirement.
The sumps shall be located so that water could be drawn
from it for fire fighting if required. It shall be designed in such
a way as to facilitate cleaning and inspection. If located on the fire
gap the design of the sump should cater for passage of heavy vehicles
b. Washing Facilities
Separate washing facilities shall be provided for male
and female workers. The minimum requirement is one wash basin for every
20 persons. Where troughs are provided they shall be tiled and shall
be at least 2 ft. of straight trough for 20 persons.
Washing areas provided for female workers should be enclosed
or screened so that the interior is not visible from any place where
persons of the other sex work.
In addition to the above, taking into consideration the
nature of operation in the factory, there shall be provided a sufficient
number of showers for the use of employees. Showers for the use of female
workers shall be enclosed.
Provision shall be made for securing and maintaining adequate
lighting whether natural or artificial in every part of the factory
where persons are working.
In areas where persons are regularly employed the intensity
of illumination shall not be less than 400 lux (40 ft. candles) at the
height of 3 ft. from the floor. In other parts of the factory over which
persons employed pass, the intensity shall not be less than 50 lux (5
The above are the minimum requirements. For operations
that need sustained attention, higher illumination should be provided.
The following table gives the recommended illumination levels for certain
Workshop - 400 lux
Sewing - 600 lux
Stores - 50 lux
Lighting should be provided in such a manner as to