could be simply introduced as the landform.
This affects the building foundation type, the building form and
its relationship to the ground, site drainage etc.
You may select a plot of land in a flat land, in a moderate slope
or in a steep slope. Wherever it is, the topography affects your
home and its foundation.
In a flat land your house could be,
(1) Sit on a raised pad, where the earth pads aid in draining
surface water away from structure.
(2) Put up above ground on piers or columns, in which case piers
and piles are used not only to elevate a building above the ground
but also to support buildings situated on or over loose soil.
(3) Dug into earth and beamed. Check for the height of sites seasonal
water table in order to avoid heavy water proofing of the below
water-table parts of the building.
In this kind of a building the earth beams may possibly be used
as the buildings side walls.
Building over water bodies could be supported on piles or caissons
resting on a hard soil surface or simply by floatation.
In the case of moderate slope your house could be cut into the
slope as shown in the figure.
Or else your home could be elevated on piers or columns as shown
If the land you have selected is situated in a steep slope the
building could sit above the ground on piers or columns to minimize
disturbances caused to the ground. In such a situation care should
be taken to provide for the channeling of both ground water and
surface water, and to use plants to prevent soil erosion.
The second option left to you with this type of a land is to terrace
or step the land and then build your new home. In such a case
use of retaining walls to prevent soil erosion and to stabilize
the soil is a must. It must be kept in your mind that it is favorable
for you if the amount of cut approximates the amount of fill.
The third option is to cut into the slope and build your future
home accordingly. But keep in mind that your home is subjected
to above normal earth loads.
Topography also affects the climate
of a small area. For example large water bodies such as tanks
act as heat containers and tend to moderate temperature fluctuations.
They generally are warmer than the land in cold climates and cooler
in not climates. They also are cooler than land in the daytime
and are warmer at night creating off shone breezes.
Hard surfaces tend to put the temperature up. Light colored surfaces
reflect heat waves while dark colored surfaces absorb and retain
Ground covers such as grass tend to lower temperatures by absorbing
heat and promoting cooling by evaporation.
Disturbances to natural drainage patterns should be avoided.
· Check for the local flood level.
· Check for the site water
table and it's seasonal changes.